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Asked by bettybove on Dec. 12, 2019
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Health and Medicine


The social contract is a covenant between the society and its members to collaborate for social benefits by sacrificing some rights and freedoms for the protection of the state. When the public health is at significant risk, the state can issue a mandatory order to be followed by each citizen e.g. vaccine or quarantine. In the case of Jacobson v. Massachusetts, the Supreme Court upheld the right of the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to administer smallpox vaccination. With this judgment, the court avowed that states may limit personal freedom and liberty to carry out warranted health mediation. In this case, the state acted with authority to protect the public's health against smallpox.
Although a person may argue that Jacobson was deprived of his liberty to refuse to be vaccinated; it is unconstitutional without a justification. However, in this case, it is constitutional because the court provided two reasons. One, the state’s decision was justified because there was a great danger of smallpox for it had claimed the lives of many people and was protecting the safety of the general public. Second, the smallpox vaccine was a reasonable means to fight the endemic. The police or the government (political authority) has the power to protect the health of the public. This paper examines the social contract, how the social, economic and political factors are related to influencing health and professional autonomy.
Social, political and economic factors are usually intertwined. Social factors are, for example, religion, education, age, wealth, relationship, life transition, and lifestyle. Political factors are health policies, and government and states authority over medical issues. Economic factors are, for example, health resources available to the economy of a state or a country and an employment rate. Social factors can predict future disease rates and even death rates. Social, political and economic factors influence health by affecting exposure to diseases, risk-taking behaviors, and accessibility to quality health care. People living with low socioeconomic status experience substantial disparities in diseases and death when compared to people of higher socioeconomic status. For example, transitions from marriage to divorce may require material and emotional resources that persons living with low socioeconomic standing cannot afford. Race and culture are social and economic factors that mirror access to health resources. African –Americans are significantly affected by health disparity in the United States. Income inequality also influences health because it increases competition for rank and material goods hence instigating stress that may later develop to chronic stress.
Professional autonomy takes place when a professional is allowed to decide as they think fits in the course of their job. Stakeholders should include professional autonomy because they are in a better position to make the best decision concerning an issue of their field of study. The Court in the Massachusetts case took into consideration the decision of the board of health that it was necessary to vaccinate the public for the greater safety of the state. On a free market, there are no regulations from the government on how to regulate the business. If no laws were governing the limitations of personal liberties, Jacobson would have free will to exercise his wish of not getting a smallpox vaccine. The public would be affected because the disease would continue to spread killing more people. More cognitive articles you can find at https://perfectwritings.com/.




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