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Asked by lindaween on May. 19, 2020
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Drug Addiction


Drugs are dangerous and harmful substances that cause irrevocable changes in the human organism and lead to the development of psychic and physical dependence. Drug addiction is a disease that is accompanied by a pathologic consumption of narcotic drugs. The paper investigates the types of drugs, the possible reasons for their consumption, and their influence on the human organism. See more in https://bestwritingservice.com/perfect-speech.html.
Pharmacy drugs are considered to be narcotic drugs sold in pharmacies. They become drugs only in case if a person feels attraction towards the consumption, takes them for the other purposes in increased doses. As a rule, these substances are sold only by prescription as they influence the nervous system and may cause addiction.
Depressants are the substances of herbal origin and synthetic compounds, sedatives, hypnotics, tranquilizing agents, and similar substances. Their main effect is the inhibition of certain processes that take place in the central nervous system. Depressants make a person insensitive, slower reaction, violate the coordination of movements. Besides, depressants include barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and opiates together with alcohol.
The vast majority of depressants are extremely harmful to the human health. Almost all depressants may cause the addiction that promotes the consumption of them on a regular basis. Their consumption is connected with a very high probability of an overdose (it forced the majority of modern doctors refuse from prescribing barbiturates). The probability of overdose increases when they are mixed with any other depressant drugs (alcohol is the most dangerous of them).
Stimulants accelerate all the processes that take place in the human body, and thus, may cause a rapid exhaustion of the organism. A person can stay awake for several days, and then just to fall asleep at a certain period of time. Under the influence of stimulants, the adequate perception of the body is disabled: there take place the changes in the feeling of the appetite (the person does not feel hunger), sleep (a person does not feel tired), fear, pain, etc.
Opioids are drugs that alter the mental state and the perception of the environment by an individual. Sometimes, opioids may induce sleep; however, the loss of consciousness does not occur even at the consumption of high doses. Opiates have diverse chemical structure; however, they produce similar effects due to their ability to bind to specific "opioid" receptors.
If a person who does not have any experience of cannabis consumption tries a hashish cigarette not knowing that it contained a drug, the feeling of euphoria may not take place. After a short period of time, a person might pay attention to the fact that he/she has experienced a short-term feeling of cleanliness of thoughts. He/she may state that under the influence of drug it is easy to make decisions and to act without thinking.
Hallucinogens are the drugs able to alter human perception and the consciousness is an unusual way. The biochemical mechanism of this influence still remains unclear. Many of the substances may be found in plants, which have been used in different religious rituals since ancient times.
These drugs have the ability to cause vivid, diverse, mainly visual and auditory images of events and objects that are absent in the human reality, named hallucinations. The effects of hallucinogens include illusions - distorted or altered perception of the real objects of the world.
Inhalants are the chemicals found in such household substances as sprays, cleaning fluids, glue, paint, paint thinners, nail polish removers, amyl nitrite and lighter gas. These are substances or gasses inhaled through the nose or mouth. Their consumption may lead to inevitable physical or mental disorders. They cause oxygen starvation of the body and make the heart beat faster with the rhythm disorders.
Over the counter drugs are the substances that may be sold to an individual without any medical prescription. As a rule, these drugs are unable to cause harm to the human organism if consumed according to the instruction. However, if the dose is increased, they may have a number of side effects and even result in a death. Moreover, these drugs are often used as the basis for the production of illegal drugs.
To the substances that may cause drug addiction belong Acetorphine, Acetylmethadol, Alfentanil, Allylprodine, Alphameprodine, Alphaprodine, Benzethidine, Betacetylmethadol, Cannabis, Cocaine, Desomorphine, Dipipanone, etc.
There is a number of specific reasons due to which drug addiction may appear. One of the main reasons is the dissatisfaction with the quality of life. This condition may take place since the early childhood. Boys, Marsden, & Strang state that people are constantly in search of something that might provide them with new different feelings. In the majority of cases, one of the ways chosen is the drug consumption. Another reason is the education. In the childhood, a person perceives the basic concepts of life. A child who is brought up in a family of drug addicted people or in a dysfunctional or incomplete family is more likely to become a drug-dependent person in the future. For any child, the emotional connection with his/her parents is one of the most important factors that influence further life. Therefore, if this connection does not exist, the child is prone to emotional breakdowns. Due to the fact that in childhood a person has not received sufficient attention, he/she is more subjected to different types of dependence, and not only drug addiction.
Physicists consider drug addiction to be a disease. That is why this disease is divided into 2 types: physical and psychological dependence. On the one hand, the psychological dependence is characterized by a painful desire for the permanent or impermanent experience of pleasant feelings that are caused by drugs. With the help of drugs, some people are able to relieve the feeling of discomfort. This kind of dependence appears if one or another substance was consumed several times. Some of the individuals are subjected to this type of influence almost immediately after the first consumption of the narcotic substances. The article “Biology of Addiction” states that the psychological dependence takes place due to the fact that a person implies to change the feelings and world perception with the help of drugs. Due to this fact, a person is unable to stop the consumption. The lack of the substance may cause depressions as well as the feeling of anxiety. When a person receives a dose, the situation is radically changed. The negative emotions disappear and are replaced by the feeling of joy and comfort.
On the other hand, physical dependence on drugs is much stronger than the mental one. The lack of the substance causes the sufferings of the entire organism. When an individual is constantly consuming drugs, the body gets used to the constant consumption. Physical dependence is characterized by somatic and mental disorders. A person wants to get the drug and almost always is subjected to the narcotic intoxication. When there does not exist an opportunity for the substance consumption, a person feels depressed, suffers from sleep disturbances, and the disruptions of the work of the entire organism. These symptoms may be relieved only when the drug substance is supplied.
The factors of risk of drug addiction may be divided into three main categories: biological, social, and psychological. The article “Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction” states that to the biological factors belong the difficulties at pregnancy period that caused the abnormal development of fetus, severe diseases that influence the ability of the human brain to resist the stressful situations without additional aid. Further, the social factors include the education of a child in the family of drug or alcohol abused people, homelessness, unemployment, easy access to drugs. The article “Drug Abuse and Addiction” states that to the psychological factors belong the desire to feel new emotions, not to differ from the surrounding people, or to create an image of a successful person.
To summarize, I consider that drug addiction is one of the main problems of humanity. People are familiar with the first substances (hallucinogens) since the ancient times when the herbal compounds were used in religious rituals. Since that time, there were discovered different types of drugs such as narcotic drugs, depressants, stimulants, opioids, cannabinols, hallucinogens, inhalants and over the counter drugs. To the substances that may cause drug addiction belong marijuana, hashish, heroin, opium, cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine), ketamine, PCP, and analogs, Salvia Divinorum, LSD, mescaline, psilocybin etc. In my opinion, one of the main reasons that put people at risk for addiction is the lack of emotional connection with parents in childhood as well as the lack of proper education in deviant families. One of the main motivations to consume drugs is the desire to feel new emotions, which with time, leads to the physical and psychological dependence.




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